Change and Development in Industrial Society

Change and Development in Industrial Society

Question

In the account of brickmaking, bidi rolling, software engineers or mines that are described in the boxes, describe the social composition of the workers. What are the working conditions and facilities available? How do girls like Madhu feel about their work?

Answer

(i) Social composition of the workers has changed in almost all the industries due to changes in technology or the kind of work, i.e., available to the people. On the other hand social institution like caste, kinship, networks, gender and regions also influence the way the work is organised or the way in which products are marketed.

(ii) In certain jobs and departments we find more women working than the men. For example, their working more in numbers in nursing or teaching jobs than in other sectors like engineering.

(iii) If he goes and observes or tries to find out the courses of such social composition of our working class we come to know that it is not just a coincidence it is because the people of Indian society that womens are suited for caring and naturing work as against jobs which are seen tuff and masculine.

(iv) Industrialisation requires a detailed division of labour.

(v) People Often do not see the end result of their work because they are producing only one part of product.

(vi) Industrialisation leads to greater equality, at least in some spheres. For example, caste distinctions do not matter any more on trains, buses or in cyber cafes. On the other hand, older forms of discrimination may persist even in new factory or workplace settings. And even as social inequalities are reducing, economic or income inequality is growing in the world. Often social inequality and income inequality overlap, for example, in the domination of upper caste men in well-paying professions like medicine, law or journalism. Women often get paid less than men for similar work.

(vii) In India, over 90% of the work, whether it is in agriculture, industry or services is in the unorganised or informal sector. What are the social implications of this small size of the organised sector ?

(viii) First, it means that very few people have the experience of employment in large firms where they get to meet people from other regions and backgrounds. Urban settings do provide some corrective to this - your neighbours in a city may be from a different place - by and large, work for most Indians is still in small-scale workplaces. Here personal relationship determine many aspects of work. If the employer likes you, you may get a salary raised, and if you have a fight with him or her, you may lose your job.

(ix) This is different from a large 1999-2000, nearly 60% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and utilities), and 23% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services, etc.). However, if we look at the contribution of these sectors to economic growth, the share of agriculture has declined sharply, and services contribute approximately half. This is a very serious situation because it means that the sector where the maximum people are employed is not able to generate much income for them.

(x) India is still largely an agricultural country. The service sector – shops, banks, the IT industry, hotels and other services are employing more people and the urban middle class is growing, along with urban middle class values like those we see in television serials and films. But we also see that very few people in India have access to secure jobs, with ever the small number in regular salaries employment becoming more insecure due to the rise in contract labour. So far, employment by the government was a major avenue for increasing the well-being of the population, but now even that is coming down.

(xi) Girls like Madhu enjoys their work because rolling of bidis and- filling of tabacco rolled tendu leaves. They get opportunity to sit and lose to their family members and other women and listen to their chat. They opened most of their time in work in factory of bidis. Apart from the time spent doing household choose. Due to long hours of sitting in the same pasture daily, they suffer from backache. Madhu wants to restart her schooling.

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