Change and Development in Industrial Society

Change and Development in Industrial Society

Question

Discuss the main points of industrialisation in the early years of Indian Independence.

Answer

The early years of Indian industrialisation since 1947 to 1990-91:

(i) The first modern industries in India were cotton, jute, coal mines and railways. After independence, the government took over the ‘commanding heights of the economy.’ This involved defence, transport and communication, power, mining and other projects which only government had the power to do, and which was necessary for private industry also to flourish.

(ii) In India’s mixed economy policy, some sectors were reserved for government, while others were open to the private sector. But within that, the government tried to ensure, through its licensing policy that industries were spread over different regions.

(iii) Before independence, industries were located mainly in the port cities like Madras, Bombay, Calcutta. But since then, we see that places like Baroda, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Pune, Faridabad and Rajkot have become important industrial centres.

(iv) The government also tried to encourage the small-scale sector through special incentives and assistance.

(v) Many items like paper and wood products, stationery, glass and ceramics were reserved for the small-scale sector.

(vi) In 1991, large-scale industry employed only 28 per cent of the total workforce engaged in manufacture, while the small-scale and traditional industry employed 72 per cent.

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