Social Institutions: Continuity And Change

Social Institutions: Continuity And Change

Question

State the constitutional provisions enshrined for protection of the schedule tribes.

Answer

There are two types of Constitutional provisions for scheduled tribes. The one is with regard to their protection and the other for their development.

(i) Article 366 (25) of the Constitution of India defines Scheduled Tribes as "such tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be scheduled tribes for the purposes of this Constitution.

(ii) In terms of Article 342 (i) the President of India may, with respect to any state or union territory, and where it is a state, after consultation with the governor thereof, notify tribes or tribal communities or parts thereof as scheduled tribes. This confers on the tribe or part of it a Constitutional status making the safeguards provided for in the Constitution, to these communities in their respective states' UTs According to the 2001 census the population of Scheduled Tribes in the country was 8.43 crore i.e. constituting 8.2% of the total population of the country.

(iii) The first proviso to article 275 (1) provides for assumed special financial assistance for promoting the welfare of STs and for raising the level of administration of the Scheduled Areas to that of the rest of the state.

(iv) The state is enjoined upon to promote with special care for the educational and economic interest of scheduled tribes and protect them from social injustice and any forms of exploitation.

(v) Seats are reserved for scheduled tribes in Lok Sabha and state legislations. They are provided with reservation for government jobs.

(vi) The recognition of traditional tribal rights to land and legal protection against alienation of tribal land.

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