Social Institutions: Continuity And Change

Social Institutions: Continuity And Change

Question

Discuss the problems of tribal communities in India?

Answer

These are major problems of tribal communities as under:

(i) Indebtedness : It is probably the most difficult problem faced by the tribal population in India. It is due to rampant poverty, loss of tribal rights over land and forests and poor and primitive mode of agriculture i.e. shifting (Jhum) agriculture.

(ii) Land Alienation : Agriculture is the primary occupation of the tribals. Nearly 88 percent scheduled tribes are engaged in agriculture. Their chronic indebtedness to the shopkeepers and money lenders becomes the primary factor in land alienation.

(iii) Poverty and unemployment : Intensive planning in tribal areas has led to chronic poverty among the tribals. In 1983-84 the percentage of persons below the poverty line among tribal people was 58.4% in rural areas while 39.9% among the urban population.

(iv) Alcoholism : Drinking can be stated to be a part of tribal society from the times immemorial and has to be understand in that context. The distilled liquor shops have served as a channel through which anti-social elements from other areas of the country find their pressure in the tribal areas.

(v) Other problems : The tribals face illiteracy, housing, communication, interaction with mainstream, industrialisation, urbanisation, migration and depopulation problems.

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