Environment and Society

Environment and Society

Question

Discuss the relationship between hunting and food-gathering societies with their environment.

Answer
The relationship between hunting and food gathering societies with their environment :

1. There are different types of societies. These are hunting and food-gathering societies, pastoral societies, agricultural soceities and urban-industrial societies. Each of these societies has a distinct set of relationships to the physical environment according to their technological development.

2. Many of the tribal societies in India are hunters and food-gatherers. They are Chenchus of Andhra Pradesh, Kadars of Kerala, Kodakus of Chhatisgarh, Birhors of Jharkhand and Onges of Little Andaman.

3. The hunting and food-gatherig tribal societies have the knowledge about the use of the wild animals and environment. Where animals and plants are not available in the region, they need to lead a nomadic life. They collect fruits, leaves and timbers from forests.

4. Now the tribal peoples have come to have developed technology for this purpose. Hunting skills, hunting weapons, animal processig for food, shelter and clothing are also develped.

5. Factors such as famine, disease, malnutrition and scarity of food are the causes for high fertility and mortality rate among them.

6. Division of labour is mainly limited to males and females. Males specialize mainly in hunting and fighting with the enemies while females used to do domestic work like rearing up the children and cooking food, etc.

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