Environment and Society

Environment and Society

Question

Discuss rural-urban continuum.

Answer
Rural-Urban Continuum :

(a) In studies of sociology, it was realized by the scholars that there was a clear contrast between rural and urban societies. Several sociologists at a later stage began suggesting that a simple rural-urban dichotomy of population is not sufficient. Gradually, it has become clear that dichotomy is not sufficient and also simplistic. There are gradations of rural and urban regions.

(b) Robert Redfield has made a significant contribution to develop the concept of folk, rural, and urban continuum. He has constructed a continuum from small rural villages to large cities. More urban means that population is more secular, more individualistic and with a greater division of labour.

(c) The concept of a rural-urban continuum is interpreted in more easy way, as continuity in the folk, the rural and the urban social organisation.

(d) The rapid process of urbanization, establishment of new technologically developed industries in rural areas (near to the urban centres) have exercised a great influence on villge life.

(e) The spread of modern industrial traits has decreased greatly the differences between rural life and urban life. So, a clear line of contrast between the two is not seen.

(f) In this way, invisible village and city cultural boundaries have made it difficult to draw a line of distinction. Hence the marginal areas show amalgamation and continuation of cultural traits of both the societies.

(g) In our country (i.e., India), during about last thirty five years the development of transport and road communication has connected the remote tribal areas, villages and urban centres quickly within a very short period of time.

(h) New occupations had modern educational institutions have attracted the people of rural regions. In this way, rural to urban migration has taken place.

(i) This process (migration) reduces the separation between tribal areas of India and its cities and villages. The distant tribal areas show traits of urbanism, tribal and rural culture.

(j) Due to migration from tribal-rural areas to urban areas, cities may exhibit combination and amalgamation of such cultural traits.

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