Environment and Society

Environment and Society


Discuss the three theories related with the models of the city.


Theories of Models of the City :

(i) The Concentric Zone Theory :

(a) According to Park and Burges (1925) the city is a series of circles. Each circle differs in the way land is used.

(b) The central business district of the city is used for commerce, business, banking, government, shopping and entertainment. Here the land price is very high and so also is the rent.

(c) The next circle of the city of ‘wholesale light manufacturing’, outside this area is the

‘low-class residential’, This area is inhabited by the poor and backward

Concrete Zone Theory


1. Central Business District.

2. Wholesale Light Manufacturing.

3. Low-Class Residential.

4. Medium-Class Residential.

5. High-Class Residential.

6. Heavy Manufacturing.

7. Outlying Business District.

8. Residential Suburb.

9. Industrial Suburb.

10. Commuters Zones.

(d) The next zone is “medium-class residential” area. This area is inhabited by the blue-collar worker.

(e) Outside the above, this circle (i.e, medium-class residential area) is the “high-class residential area.” It is the zone of middle-class people. Apartments as private dwellings are here. These are with high rents.

(f) The Commuters' Zone is located at the furthermost area from the central business district. This area lies on the outer periphery of the city. It is the area of much recent population growth.

Conclusion: Concentric Zone theory of the model of the city is developed from the study of Chicago (USA) city. This theory may not be applicable to Indian cities.

(ii) The Sector Theory :

(a) The second form of a model of the city is sector model. It views the large city as a number of sectors rather than concentric zones.

(b) The sectors are products of the growth pattern of cities.

(c) Transportation path in the urban area, the pattern of land use along water-ways, railroad lines and highways are laid out.

(d) Industry generally develops along the transportation routes. The sector models of San Francisco city of U.S.A. and Chandigarh city of India seem to have been designed on the basis of Hoyt’s (1939) sector model.

(e) Hoyt’s theory is broadly based on a study of residential characteristics and rental values. He says that population tends to move along well-defined axes of transportation as the city grows. The higher income group moves fast than the lower income group.

(iii) The Multiple Nuclei Theory :

(a) The third ecological model of the city is the multiple nuclei theory. Here, the cities have different centres. Thus, the land use pattern and rents are influenced by this ecological process.

(b) In the process of development, the first nucleus of a city is developed around a port or mine, then the other nuclei develop.

 Sector Theory

(c) These nuclei develop due to various kinds of activities in the city. Mumbai is a city of this type.

(d) Harris and Ulman (1946) suggest that the land use patterns of some cities are developed around some district nuclei but not in a single centre.

: Multiple Nuclei

(e) The nuclei are districts having various functions having particular relations to the nature of existing terrain and communication.

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