Sociology And Society

  • Question

    Discuss how there is greater give and take among disciplines today.


    Give and take among different disciplines (or subjects) :

    (i) Sociology is one age group of social sciences, which also includes authropology, economics political science and history.

    (ii) The division among various sociail sciences are not clearent, and all share a certain range of common interest, concepts and methods, Today there is greater gave and take among all disciplines because most subjects rela ted with social sciences are interrelated and upto some extent interdependent also.

    (iii) Socilogy and Economics : (a) The sociological approach looks at economic behaviour in a broarder context of social norms, values, practices and interest. The coporate sectors managers are aware of this. The? large

    investment in the advertisment industry is directly linked to the need to re-shape lifestyles and consumption patterns.

    (b) The define scope of economics has helped in facilating its development as a highly focused, coherent discipline, Sociologists often entry every the economists for the precision of their technology and the exactness of their measures. And the ability to traslate the results of their theortical work into practical suggestion having measure implication for public policy. Yet economists predictive ability often suffer precirely because of their neglect of individual behaviour, cultural norms and institutional resistance which sociologists study.

    (c) Sociology unlike economics usually does not provide technical solutions. But it encourages a questioning and critical perspective. This helps questioning of basic assumptions. Recent trends have been seen a resurgence of economic sociology perhaps because of both this wider and critical perspective of sociology.

    (d) Sociology provides clearer or more adequate understanding of a social situation than existed before. This can be either on the level of factual knowledge, or through gaining an improved group of why something is happening (in other words, by means of theoretical understanding).

    Sociology and Political Science :

    (a) Sociology is devoted to the study of all aspects of society, where as conventional political science restricted it self mainly to the study of power as embodied in formal organisation.

    (b) Sociology stresses the interrelation ships between sets of institutions including government, where as political science tends to turn attention towards the processess within the government.

    (c) Sociology long shared similar interests of research with political science. Sociologists like Max Weber worked in what can be termed as political sociology. The focus of political sociology has been increasingly on the actual study of political behaviour.

    Sociology and History:

    (a) Historians almost as a rule study the past, sociologists are more interested in the contemporary or recent past.

    (b) History studies concreate detail while the sociologist is more likely to abstract from concrete reality, categorise and generalise.

    (c) Conventional history has been about the history of kings and war. The history of less glamorous or exciting events or changes in land relations or gender relations within the family have traditionally been less studied by historians but formed the core area of the sociologist interest.

    (d) Today however history is far more sociological and social history is the stuff of history. It looks at social patterns, gender relations, mores, customs and important institutions other than the acts of rulers, wars and monarchy.

    Sociology and Psychology:

    (a) Psychology is often defined as the science of behaviour. It involves itself primarily with the individual. It is interested in her/his intelligence and learning, motivations and memory, nervous system and reaction time, hopes and fears. Social psychology, which serves as a bridge between psychology and sociology, maintains a primary interest in the individual but concerns itself with the way in which the individual behaves in social groups, collectively with other individuals.

    (b) Sociology attempts to understand behaviour as it is organised in society, that is the way in which personality is shaped by different aspects or society. For instance, economic and political system, their family and kingship structure, their culture, norms and values.

    Sociology and Social Anthropology :

    (a) Anthropology is most countries in corporates archaeology, physical anthropology, cultural history, many branches of lingnistics and the study of all aspects of life in 'Simple Societies'. Our concern here is with social anthropology and cultural anthropology for it is that which is close to the study of sociology.

    (b) The anthropologists of the past documented the details of simple societies appartently in a neutral scientific fashion. In

    practice they were constantly comparing those societies with the model of the western modern societies as a benchmark.

    (c) Other changes have also redefined the nature of sociology and social anthropology. Modernity as we saw led to a process whereby the smallest village was impacted by global processes. The most obvious example is colonialism. The most remote village of India under British colonialism saw its land laws and administration change, its revenue extraction alter, its manufacturing industries collapse.

    (d) Today the distinction between a simple society and a complex one itself needs major rethinking. India itself is a complex mix of tradition and modernity of the village and the city, of caste and tribe, of class and community. Villages nestle right in the heart of the capital city of Delhi. Call centres serve European and American clients from different towns of the country.

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