Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes


The synthesis of alkyl fluorides is best accomplished by

  • free radical fluorination

  • Sandmeyer's reaction

  • Finkelstein reaction

  • Swarts reaction



Swarts reaction

Alkyl fluorides can be prepared by the action of mercurous fluorides or antimony trifluoride (inoragnic fluorides) on corresponding alkyl halide.
This reaction is known as Swarts reaction
CH3Br + AgF → CH3F + AgBr
But, when the action of NaI/acetone takes place on alkyl chloride or bromide alkyl iodide forms. This reaction is called 'Finkelstein reaction.
straight C subscript 2 straight H subscript 5 Cl space rightwards arrow from acetone to NaI of straight C subscript 2 straight H subscript 5 straight I space plus space NaCl
Free radical fluoridation is a highly explosive reaction. So not preferred for the preparation of fluoride.

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