The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society

The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society

Question

Who was Karl Marx? Mention main characteristics of Marxianm view point of population?

Answer

Karl Marx condemns the Mathusian theory on ground that certain economic conditions create the position of over population. Those conditions are created by the capitalist mode of production which lack a rational distribution of wages and resources and effective use of human productivity.

Such a process of capital accumulation creates different forms of surplus population and increases poverty and under-development. Thus, over-population is a consequence of capitalist economy.

Main features of Marxist theory:

(i) Growth of population is determined by economic conditions of living.

(ii) There is no universal law of population and food production. If there is any law, it is historically determined in accordance with the changes in the mode of production but it is not determined by the so-called unequal powers of population and land.

(iii) In order to achieve optimum size of population and reduce population on growth, social reorganisation or collectivisation of economy and the national distribution of resources and the expansion of infrastructural facilities are needed.

(iv) The economic perspective does not support the notion of diminishing return from any factor, mainly the land. According to this viewpoint, the productive capacity of land increases through the application of science and technology.

(v) As per Karl Marx, development is regarded as the best contraceptive. Development and over-population are relative terms. They are inversely correlated and population declines as development takes place.

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