Introducing Western Sociologists

Introducing Western Sociologists

Question

Write an essay on religion of India; (Hinduism and Buddhism.) and the development of capitalism.

Answer
According to Max Weber religion of India (i.e.,) Hinduism and Buddhism and rise of capitalism.

1. India had been economincally fairly adavanced prior to the Industrial Revolution (about from 1750 to 1856 A.D.) of the West. But Hinduism failed according to Max Weber, to provide a suitable work ethic for the development of capitalism.

2. Following were the main causes of failure of Hinduism to provide suitable environment for the development of capitalism.

First, Hinduism did not allow individuals to change their respective caste occupations. It, thus, discouraged innovation. The ideas of Karma (कर्म), dharma dharma (धर्म), and Samskara and Samskara Karma (संस्कार), (the cycle of births and rebirths) or punarjanma (पुनर्जन्म), made the Indians fatalists and defeatist. made the Indians fatalists punarjanma (भाग्यवादि), and defeatist.

Secondary, the Hindus as well as the Buddhost idea of salvation or moksha or nirvana states that human beings can be liberated only when they empty themselves of wordly desires or ‘Vasana’ Hinduism, thus preaches ‘other-wordly asceticism’. The material world is de-emphasized, material prosperity is not given importance because it is temporary or illusions.

Thirdly, the rational pursuit of wealth for its own sake and rational organization of work to fulfil this purpose were never encouraged in Hinduism. India had failed to develop capitalism and rational attitudes to life usually because Max Weber urged, her religions (Hinduism and Buddhism) were, “other wordly”. The effects, the notion or ritual purity/impurity as attachment to occupations in the caste system on development were judged by Max Weber as being negative. Indian religions were incapable of ‘giving birth to economic and technical revolutions from within or even of facilitating the first germination of capitalism.

Fourthly, the absence of the concept of national law and citizenship, the lack of national feeling and the passive role of individual strata in society were other factors inhibiting the national pursuit of economic interest in India.

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