Introducing Western Sociologists

Introducing Western Sociologists

Question

Write an essay on Dynamics of Social Change.

Answer
Dynamics of Social Change :

1. Karl Marx (1818-1883) was of the opinion that individuals make their own history. People tried to transform nature for their own interest and they had also been transforming themselves. But the antagonism between the exploiters and those who are exploited is the distinctive feature of all stages of human history.

2. Human beings create specific forms of social organisations depending upon the means of production which differ from society to society.

3. As societies change from simple to complex, in such societies division of labour becomes a necessity which leads to the emergence of the system of stratification.

4. Marx favours that to bring any change, it is essential to change the infrastructure consisting of forces and relations of production. These changes will automatically bring changes in the superstructure.

5. Karl Marx borrowed the dialetic from Hegel, a German philosopher who applied the concept of dialectics at the spiritual level which is called dialetical spiritualism. The contribution of Karl Marx lies in providing a material reference to the dialectical process of change in nature and human society.

6. On the basis of their economic regimes and modes of production, Karl Marx identified four stages in human history. The stages are the primitive communal, the ancient, the feudal, and the modern bourgeois form.

7. When Karl Marx worked on Asian countries, then he used the term Asiatic mode of production for primitive communal stage. Except the Asiatic mode of production, the other three were part of the history of Western Countries. Each of these three stages are characterised by the type of relationships among the individuals who work.

8. According to Karl Marx, class antagonism in each of the four referred modes of production, (i.e., ancient, feudal, capitalistic and the Asiatic) differs. Each time new classes with a noble productive principle emerged and broke down the old order and create new material conditions.

9. The bourgeois relations of production, according to Karl Marx, are the last antagonistic form of the social process of production. He was of the firm opinion that the proletariat will overthrow the bourgeois and the dialiectical principle of the forces and relations of production will cease to operate and harmony will replace social conflict in the affairs of human beings. Harmonious relations is the chief characteristics of the socialist society.

10. Karl Marx’s main stress is that the human society was the developmental outcome of the material activities of individuals over nature which in turns determines other social institutions of individuals. He calls this process as historical materialism which was further developed by Engels. Lenin and Stalin called it is dialectical materialism.

11. The nature of dialectical reality has further been explained by the sociologists who subscribe the ideas of Marxist School. Coser and Dahrendor are the two notable advocates of the dialectical nature of conflict and change.

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