Environment and Society

Environment and Society

Question

Urban communities are different from rural communities. Explain.

Answer
Differences between urban and rural Communities :

1. Urban community means the human being living in the environment of the urban areas. While on the other hand a the meaning of rural community is the people living in evironment of the rural areas.

2. Ecology influences the urban communities greatly. When city is formed and grows clustering of people, their activities are concentrated in a particular area. Gradually the central city area becomes highly populated. Movement of people from the central areas to the suburb is noticed.

Cities located near a river or sea grow faster because of easy transportation and commercial activities. In other geographical areas city grow very slowly because of non-availiability of transportation. In rural areas the number of the people increases very slowly. The people face the problem of transportation and advanced commercial activities.

3. There are different types of societies in the rural areas. These are hunting and food-gathering societies, pastoral societies, agricultural societies in rural areas while in urban areas we find urban-industrial societies. Each of these societies has a distinct set of relationship to the physical environment according to their technological development.

4. Behaviours of urban communities vary from one another. A large scale immigration from neighbouring rural areas to the urban centres take place. This process replaces the earlier settlers by the waves of immigrants.

5. The hunting and food-gathering tribal societies have the knowledge about the use of the wild animals and plants available in their neighbouring environment. Where animals and plants (grassy fields) are not available in the region, they have to lead a nomadic life. They collect fruits, leaves and timbers from forests. Now they have come to have developed technology for this purpose.

6. Hunting skills, hunting weapons, animal processing for food, shelter and clothing are also developed. Factors such as diseases, famine, malnutrition and scarcity of food are the causes for high fertility and morality rate among them.

7. Division of labour in tribal rural communities is mainly limited to males and females. Males specialize mainly in hunting and fighting with the enemies while females use to do domestic work like rearing-up the children and cooking food, etc.

8. Domestication of animals is the principal economy of pastoral communities. Nomadic or semi-nomadic habits are a characteristics feature of their day-to-day life.

9. Agricultural societies settle down permanently in villages for cultivation throughout the year.

10. The development of crafts, arts and different cottage and small scale industries are the products of technological advancements in rural area.

11. During the past three centuries, urban-industrial societies have grown up from the agricultural societies. People from rural-areas have moved to the cities. The early cities have brought some modification in the social system and in the person-to-person relations.

12. The urban societies differ from other societies in respect of population, environment, technology and social organisation. The econony of urban societies is based on trade commerce, work in factories and offices.

13. The rapid growth of population in cities has created pressure on environment. The byproduct of industries and automobiles in the cities releases gases increasing carbondioxide and decreasing oxygen in the environment.

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