History

Question 1

Discuss the contribution of archaeological sources for the reconstruction of early Indian history.

Solution

The importance of coins and inscriptions as a source for history writing is very much. As compare to the literary sources, there are very little chances of manipulating the archaeological sources like coins and inscriptions. Thus, the authencity of the archaeological sources get enhanced. Inscriptions are the most important of all the archaeological sources. Most of the inscriptions of ancient Indian are found engraved on stone or metal sheets. Due to the engravising on the stone or metal sheet there are almost no chances of manipulation with it. But the problem of dating remains with the inscriptions. The dating is done mainly on the basis of calligraphy of the inscriptions. The most ancient inscriptions available to us belong to the period of King Ashoka of Mauryan period. These inscriptions throw light on the theories of Kingship of Ashoka and also on his religious ideas. Ashokan inscriptions are mostly in Brahmi script. Some of the inscriptions are also available in Kharoshti and Aramaic script. The inscriptions found after Ashoka can be divided into two groups: Official inscriptions and Individual inscriptions. The Official inscriptions are either the eulogies written by the court poets or are land charters. At times, there many exaggerations found in the inscription. So, they must be used carefully. The inscriptions engraved on the stones or pillars give us the idea of the extent of the empire of a particular king. Individual inscriptions are generally found in the temples or are engraved on the idols. The information’s given on these idols gives us the idea about their origin. This also throws light on the architecture and sculpture of the period.

 

The coins are also an important source for the study of history. There are many signs engraved on the ancient coins. There are no other information mentioned on these coins. We don't know the exact meaning of these signs. These coins were probably issued by the traders, trading guilds etc. These coins do not help the historians much. But when the Greek rulers started ruling over the north-western parts of India, they Started issuing coins on which many information’s were mentioned. Many a times apart from other information’s, the figures of the rulers was also put on the coins. The findings of coins in bulk from one place indicates that the particular place must have been in under one particular state. The dates mentioned on the coins indicate the time period of the rulers. The religious figures on the coins give us the idea about the religious conditions. The content of gold gives us the idea about the economic condition.

Question 2

Highlight the main features of the Paleolithic cultures.

Solution

The Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age' was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. The Mesolithic period began at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, some 10,000 BP and ended with the introduction of agriculture, the date of which varied by geographic region. In some areas, such as the Near East, agriculture was already underway by the end of the Pleistocene and there the Mesolithic is short and poorly defined. In areas with limited glacial impact, the term Epipaleolithic is sometimes preferred. Regions that experienced greater environmental effects as the last ice age ended have a much more evident Mesolithic era, lasting millennia. In Northem Europe, societies were able to live well on rich food supplies Tom the marshlands fostered by the warmer climate. Such conditions produced distinctive human behaviours which are preserved in the material record, such as the Maglemosian and Azilian cultures. These conditions also delayed the coming of the Neolithic until as late as 4000 BCE (6,000 BP) in northern Europe. Microlith is a small stone tool, typically knapped of flintorchert, usually about three centimetres long or less

they are typically one centimetre long and half a centimetre wide when finished. Microliths were either produced from small blades (microblades) or made by snapping normal big blades in a controlled manner, which leaves a very typical piece of waste (microburin). The latter type of microliths are called geometric microliths. They can be formed as various kinds of triangles, lunate shaped, trapezes, etc. The shape of the microlith can be used for dating. Microliths were produced during the middle stone age (Mesolithic) until the introduction of agriculture (8000 B.C)). Some types of microliths such as trapezes, were used in the Neolithic as well (the Linear Pottery culture and Funnelbeaker culture). They were probably used as barbs, on arrows, spears and other composite tools.