Social Structure : Stratification and Social Process in Society

  • Question 1

    Write in short the meaning of following terms/words :

    (1) Status, (2) Socialization,

    (3) Social Structure, (4) Social System,

    (5) Role, (6) Role-Strain,

    (7) Role-Conflict, (8) Role-Set,

    (9) Norms.

    (1) Status : It is a position occupied by an individual in group or in a society.

    (2) Socialization : This is a process by which a human infant learns the norms, rules and skills of the society.

    (3) Social Structure : This refers to the ways (means) and different parts of structure which are organised and follow stable patterns of collective rules, roles and activities.

    (4) Social System : This a set of patterned relations among structural elements of a society.

    (5) Role : It is the expected behaviour of a person (or an individual) who holds a certain status.

    (6) Role-Strain : Personal problems that result when inconsistencies are built into a role.

    (7) Role-Conflict : The situations when fulfilment of one role may result in the violation of another.

    (8) Role-Set : The array of roles associated with a particular status is called role-set.

    (9) Norms : These are shared standards of desirable behaviour which people follow while interacting with others.

    Question 2

    What is meant by the following terms/words :

    (1) Achieved Status, (2) Ascribed Status,

    (3) Adaptive Function, (4) Dysfunctions,

    (5) Esteem, (6) Prestige,

    (7) Pattern-Maintenance,

    (8) Preservation of Order,

    (9) Functions.

    (1) Achieved Status : A social status or position that an invidual obtains through his or her personal efforts.

    (2) Ascribed Status : A social (or a group) position (or status) assigned to a person on the basis of his/her birth or in different stages in life cycle.

    (3) Adaptive Function : It refers to the requirement for the production or resources that can be employed for the attainment of goals.

    (4) Dysfunctions : Those results which disturb the adaptation or adjustment of the system.

    (5) Esteem : People occupying the same position (or status) may vary in their role performance and the evaluation of role has been called as esteem.

    (6) Prestige : This refers to the status attached to the office or combination of them. Some positions ranked high occupy high prestige.

    (7) Pattern-Maintenance : It reinforces the basic values of the social system through rewards for conformity and check on disruptive behaviour through punishment.

    (8) Preservation of Order : The ways by which the behaviour of individuals is patterned and regulated.

    (9) Functions : There refer to those results which make adjustment or adaptation of a given system.

    Question 3

    Briefly write the meaning of following terms/words :

    (1) Integrative Function,

    (2) Latent Functions,

    (3) Multiple Roles,

    (4) Macro level of Social Structure,

    (5) Menifest Functions,

    (6) Master Status,

    (7) Micro Level Social Structure,

    (8) Values.

    (1) Integrative Function : This refers to harmonious relations between members through allocation of rights and obligations, rewards and facilities.

    (2) Latent Functions : Those functions which are neither intended nor recognized are called latent functions.

    (3) Multiple Roles : This refers to the complex of roles associated not with a single status (or position) but with. different positions or statuses.

    (4) Macro Level of Social Structure : The large social pattern that shapes an entire society.

    (5) Manifest Functions : Those objective consequences which are intended and expected, and which contribute to the adjustment or adaptation to the system.

    (6) Master Status : This is a status that dominates over other statuses of an individual.

    (7) Micro Level Social Structure : The pattern of personal interaction that defines everyday life.

    (8) Values : H.M. Johnson defines values, “as a conception, or standard, cultural or merely personal, by which things are compared and approved or disapproved relative to one another - held to be relatively desirable or undesirable, more meritorious or less, more or less correct.

    Question 4

    What is role-set ? Describe the role-set of a doctor in a hospital.

    I. Role-Set : The array of roles associated with a particular status is called role-set.

    II. The Role-Set of a doctor in a hospital :

    For instance, a doctor in a hospital is interacting with other doctors of the hospital, with nurses and other employees of the hospital, with the patients, and with the doctors of other hospitals and even with the doctors of other country for interaction.

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