Life on the Earth

  • Question 85

    Give an account of deciduous forests

    Deciduous Forests : Trees shed their leases in a particular season to conserve loss of moisture. Deciduous forests are of the following types :

    (i) Tropical Deciduous Forests : These are found in subtropical regions with a distinct dry season. These forests have fewer species and are less dense. Teak is a valuable hardwood tree found in these forests. These are found in monsoon regions of Asia, central America, Brazil and northern Asia.

    (ii) Mid-latitude Deciduous Forests : These occur in coastal regions of cool climates. Trees shed their leaves in winter when temperature is below 6°C. These occur in the region of western Europe, north-eastern China, Japan, north-eastern United States etc.

    3. Grasslands: Grasses are shallow rooted plants which thrive under varying climatic conditions. They are divided into tropical grasslands and mid-latitude grasslands.

    (i) Tropical Grasslands : These occur in the interiors of continents in the tropical zone. These grasses are tall, about 2 metres in height. These are found in equatorial regions of Africa, Brazilian Plateau, Deccan Plateau etc.

    (ii) Mid-latitude Grasslands : These occur in the interiors of continents in mid-latitudes receiving moderate rainfall. These grasses are short and trees are absent. These are found in regions of Russia, U.S.A., Canada and South African plateau.

    Question 86

    Write a brief note on Mediterranean forests.


    Mediterranean forests:
    1. These forests are found in the middle latitudes.

    2. These forests are found in the western margins of the continents.

    3. Trees of these forests are having small leaves.

    4. Shrubs occur in between the trees.

    5. Cork, oak, olive and chestnut are the examples of Mediterranean forests.

    Question 87

    Explain the component of ecosystem

    1. From a structural point of view, all ecosystems consist of abiotic and biotic factors.
    2. Abiotic factors include rainfall, temperature, sunlight, atmospheric humidity, soil conditions, inorganic substances (carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, etc.).
    3. Biotic factors include the producers, the consumers (primary, secondary, tertiary) and the decomposers. The producers include all the green plants, which manufacture their own food through photosynthesis.
    Question 88

    Distinguish between xeroohytes and hydrophytes.


    Plants which are able to survive in dry regions are called xerophytes
    Plant adapted to live in extremely wet conditions are calles hydrophytes.

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