• Question 37

    Mention the tenures of the first Lok Sabha to till date.


    Tenures of the Lok Sabha —

    Lok Sabha                           Tenures

    First Lok Sabha — 13th May 1952 to April 4,1957

    Second Lok Sabha — 10th May 1957 to March 31, 1962

    Third Lok Sabha — 16th April 1962 to March 3, 1967

    Fourth Lok Sabha — 16th March 1967 to Dec. 27, 1970

    Fifth Lok Sabha — 19th March 1971 to January 18, 1977

    Sixth Lok Sabha — 25th March 1977 to Aug. 22, 1979

    Seventh Lok Sabha — Jan. 21, 1980 to Dec. 31, 1984

    Eighth Lok Sabha — Jan. 15, 1985 to Nov. 13,1991

    Ninth Lok Sabha — Dec. 18, 1989 to March, 1991

    Tenth Lok Sabha — July 9, 1991 to May 15, 1996

    Eleventh Lok Sabha — May 22, 1996 to Dec. 1997

    Twelfth Lok Sabha — March 23, 1998 to April 26, 1999.

    Thirteenth Lok Sabha — Oct. 20, 1999 to Feb. 6, 2004.

    Fourteenth Lok Sabha — May 2004 to May 2009

    Fifteenth Lok Sabha — May 2009 to May 2014.
    Sixteen Lok Sabha — May 2014 to Continue

    Question 38

    A class was debating the merits of a bicameral system. The following points were made during the discussion. Read the arguments and say if you agree or disagree with each of them, giving reasons.

    ✓ Neha said that bicameral legislature does not serve any purpose.

    ✓ Shama argued that experts should be nominated in the second chamber.

    ✓ Tridib said that if a country is not a federation, then there is no need to have a second chamber.


    1. Neha said that bicameral legislature does not serve any purpose. But it is not true. In a large country like India it is preferred to have two houses of the legislature to give representation to all sections of the society. The second argument in favour of Bicameral legislature is that the monopoly of the first chamber can be checked.

    2. Shama argued that experts should be nominated in the second chamber. In our country the President can nominate 12 members in Rajya Sabha. These nominations are made from among those persons who have the specialisation in the fields of literature, art, social services, science, etc. The selected members of the different fields are experienced and they posses intellectual depth.

    3. 'Tridib’ arguments may not be valid. Even if a country is not a federation, a need for the second chamber is there. The two houses of the national legislature are required to give representations to all the sections of the society and to give representation to all geographical regions of parts of the country. A bicameral legislature ensures double check on every bill and every policy matter, thus realizing the exact purpose of the legislative organ of the government.

    Question 39

    Mention the special powers of the Rajya Sabha.


    Under the Constitution, the Rajya Sabha has been vested with two special powers.

    1. Under article 249, the Rajya Sabha may declare the resolution, passed by two-third majority of its members present and voting, that is necessary or expedient in the national interest that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List.

    2. (i) Rajya-Sabha is competent to create one or more All India Services if it passes a resolution by two-third majority.

    (ii) Rajya-Sabha alone can initiate the proposal for removing the Vice-President.

    Question 40

    Alok thinks that a country needs an efficient government that looks after the welfare of the people. So, if we simply elected our Prime Minister and Ministers and left to them the task of government, we will not need a legislature. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. 


    Alok’s thinking is completely ignorant. Executive and legislature have quite two different domains of operation. The executive runs the administration of the country while legislature is concerned with the formation of laws and to check the executions of the executive and judiciary. If we simply elect our Prime Minister and minister and leave to them the task of government, it will give rise to dictatorship. The legislature helps people in holding the Council of Ministers accountable. Without the legislature, a true representative democracy cannot be materialised. Legislature is the most important organ of all the organs of government. Without the fetters of the legislature there would be all likelihood that the Council of Ministers would become unresponsive to the people’s hopes and aspirations.

    Delhi University

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