• Question 65

    Give examples of positively reinforcers.


    Food, water, medals, praise, money, status, information etc. are examples of positive reinforcers.

    Question 66

    How a list of words is learned by the scientists? Discuss briefly.


    A list of words is learned by scientists by the following sequences:

    (i) To do a pre-test to know how much the person knows before learning.

    (ii) Present the list of words to be remembered for a fixed time.

    (iii) During this time the list of words is processed towards acquiring new knowledge.

    (iv) After processing is complete, new knowledge is acquired.

    (v) After some time lapses, the processed information is recalled by the persons.

    Question 67

    What are the basic experimental arrangements of different procedures of classical conditioning?


    The basic experimental arrangements of different procedures of classical conditioning are as follows:

    (i) When the CS and US are presented together, it is called simultaneous conditioning.

    (ii) In delayed conditioning, the onset of CS precedes the onset of US. The CS ends before the end of the US.

    (iii) In trace conditioning, the onset and end of the CS precedes the onset of US with sometime gap between the two.

    (iv) In backward conditioning, the US precedes the onset of CS.   

    Question 68

    Discuss different approaches of learning styles.    


    Different approaches of learning style are as follows:    

    (i) Perceptual Modality: These are biologically based reactions to the physical environment. It refers to the preferences of persons through which they take in information such as auditory, visual, smell, kinesthetic, and tactile.    

    (ii) Information Processing: I distinguishes between the way we are structure to think, solve problems, and remember information. This may be thought of as the was we process information. For example, active reflective, sensing/intuitive, sequential/global serial/simultaneous, etc.    

    (iii) Personality Patterns: These are the way we interact with our surroundings. Each one of us has a preferred, consistent, and distinct way of perceiving, organising, and retaining information. This approach focuses on understanding how personality affects the was people interact with the environment, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment.

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