Question 73

Make a table of similarity-dissimilarity relationship between the initial and subsequent learning tasks.


Table: Similarity-Dissimilarity Relationship between the Initial and Subsequent Learning Tasks

Sr. No.

Initial Task

Second Task





Both stimuli and responses are different




Stimuli are the same and responses are similar




Stimuli same but responses are different




Stimuli are different but responses are same




Same stimuli and responses but associations interchanged

Question 74

What are differences between analytic and relational styles of learning.


Difference between analytic and relational styles of learning:

Relational Style

Analytical Style

1. Perceive information as part of total picture.

1. Able to dissembled information from total picture (focus on detail)

2. Exhibit intuitive thinking.

2. Exhibit sequential and structured thinking.

3. Learn materials that have a human, social content and are characterised by experiential/cultural relevance more easily.

3. Learn materials that are inanimate and impersonal more easily.

4. Have a good memory for verbally presented ideas and information, especially if relevant.

4. Have a good memory for abstract ideas and irrelevant information.

5. Are more task-oriented concerning non academic areas.

5. Are more task-oriented concerning academics.

6. Are influenced by authority figures expression of confidence or doubt in students ability.

6. Are not greatly affected by the opinions of others.

7. Prefer to withdraw from unstimulating task performance.

7. Show ability to persist unstimulating task.

8. Style conflicts with the traditional school environment.

8. Style matches with the most school environments.

Question 75

Discuss applications of learning principles in treatment of maladjustive behaviours.


The principles of learning have great value for enriching human life in all spheres of life. Some of the applications of learning principles in treatment of maladjustive behaviours are as follows:

(i) In the case of those children and adults who exhibit irrational and unfounded fear with accompanying avoidance behaviour, implosive therapy and flooding are used. Implosive therapy starts with the person imagining their most feared form of contacl with the feared object, accompanied by vivid verbal descriptions by the therapist. The therapist functions as a coach. On the other hand, flooding is exposure that ( takes place in vivo. (e.g., with an actual feared object) and is considered to be the most effective of all treatments for fear.

(ii) To help those suffering from excessive anxieties and fears, the technique of systematic desensitisation is used. It is a form of behaviour therapy used to reduce phobic patients anxiety responses through counterconditioning, i.e. an attempt to reverse the process of classical conditioning by associating the crucial stimulus with a new conditioned response.

(iii) In order to eliminate habits that are undesirable and injurious for health and happiness, aversion therapy is used. The therapist arranges things in such a way that occurrence of maladjustive habits generates painful experiences and to avoid them clients learn to give them up. For example, alcohol is paired with an emetic drug (which induces severe nausea and vomiting) so that nausea and vomiting become a conditioned response to alcohol.

(iv) Modeling any systematic use of reinforcement for shaping and developing competence are extensively used.

(v) Persons suffering from excessive shyness and having difficulties in inter personal interactions are subjected to assertive learning. This therapy is also based on the principles of learning.

(vi) There are persons who lose mental peace with accelerated rate of breathing, loss of appetite, and rise in blood pressure at the slightest provocation. In such cases psychotherapists give biofeedback treatment. This technique is based on the interaction between classical and instrumental conditioning. In biofeedback, a bodily function (such as heart rate or blood pressure) is monitored and information about the function is fed back to the person to facilitate improved control of the physiological process.

Question 76

What are differences between classical and operant conditioning? Explain.


Difference between classical and operant conditioning:

1. In classical conditioning, the responses are under the control of some stimulus because they are reflexes, automatically elicited by the appropriate stimuli. Such stimuli are selected as unconditioned stimulus and responses elicited by them as unconditioned response. Thus Pavlovian conditioning, in which unconditioned stimulus elicits responses, is often called respondent conditioning.

In instrumental conditioning responses are under the control of the organism and are voluntary responses or operants. Thus, in the two forms of conditioning different types of responses are conditioned.

2. In classical conditioning the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are well-defined, but in operant conditioning conditioned stimulus is not defined. It can be inferred but is not directly known.

3. In classical conditioning, the experimenter controls the occurrence of unconditioned stimulus while in operant conditioning the occurrence of the reinforcer is under the control of the organism, that is learning. Thus, for in classical conditioning the organism remains passive, while in operant conditioning the subject has to be active in order to be reinforced.

4. In the two forms of conditioning, the technical terms used to characterise the experimental proceedings are different. Moreover what is called reinforcer in operant conditioning is called unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioning. As unconditional stimulus has two functions. In the beginning it elicits the response and also reinforces the response to be associated and elicited later on by the conditioned stimulus.

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