Introducing Western Sociologists

  • Question 1

    What is meant by Marxism, Alienation and Proletariat ?

    1. Marxism : Some of Karl Marx’s thoughts acquired the character of ideology which is generally known as ‘Marxism’.

    2. Alienation : It is a condition of self-estrangement. Consequently the worker is detached from the work. Alienation takes place in the broken relationship between workers and work.

    3. Proletariat : These are the working class (i.e., labourers and peasants) people who sell their labour.

    Question 2

    xplain the meaning of the following terms/words :

    Exploitation, Ancient Mode of Production, Feudal Mode of Production, Capitalist Mode of Production, Bourgeoisie.

    1. Exploitation : It refers to appropriation of worker’s wages i.e., surplus by depriving them of their due share.

    2. Ancient Mode of Production : It refers to a situation on enslavement of labour. Two classes that exist in medieval these stages are called masters and slaves.

    3. Feudal Mode of Production : This is characterized by serfdom and found in feudal societies of the Western Europe.

    4. Capitalist Mode of Production : This is characterized by wage earning and is found in capitalist societies.

    5. Bourgeoise : These are those few who own the means of production in a capitalist society. They enjoy both economic and political power.

    Question 3

    Breifly explain the meaning of following terms :

    Asiatic mode of Production, Dialectical materialism, Historical materialism, Class Antagonism.

    1. Asiatic Mode of Production : This refers to the subordination of all the workers to the state. This was the characteristics of Asian soceities, according to Karl Marx.

    2. Dialetical Materialism : It refers to a situation of conflict in the process of production.

    3. Historical Materialism : It refers to the development outcome of the material activity of man over nature which in turn determines other social institutions of man.

    4. Class Antagonism : It refers to class opposition or struggle. According to Karl Marx, human history is characterised by the struggle between different social classes. Antagonism exists between the oppressor and the oppressed which polarises the two blocks i.e., Bourgeoisie and Proletariat.

    Question 4

    How does Durkheim define Sociology ?


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